Civil Engineering (Reports)

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  • Publication
    Training courses and learning material on energy efficient building operation
    (SINERGY Consortium, 2022-03-31) Blanes, Luis M.; Keane, Marcus M.; Janev, Valentina; Horizon 2020
    The main objective of SINERGY work package 3 is to establish collaboration with strategic partners, i.e. AIT and NUIG,and enable expertise and ¿know-how¿ exchange in the area of smart grids, distributed energy resources, building optimization and building information modelling. Task 3.2 focuses on the preparation of training courses on Energy efficient building operation, mainly provided by the partner NUIG National University of Ireland Galway. The report (Deliverable 3.3) summarizes the training courses under elaboration in the first reporting period, from January 2021 to March 2022. Due to COVID-19, in the first reporting period, 2 lectures were delivered online. The first face-to-face training has been scheduled for the period from 31st of May to 2nd of June 2022.
  • Publication
    ICT platform requirements and KPIs definitions
    (SPHERE Consortium, 2020-11-13) Yontem, Emre; Koppelaar, Rembrandt; Clifton, Jessica; Duveroglu, Yigit; Melandri, Daniela; Inaner, Gulfem; Tajelipirbazi, Nima; Olcek, Can; Yontem, Eren; Larkman, Piers; Horizon 2020
    The detailed use cases will be identified based on Integrated Design and Delivery Services (IDDS) framework findings. Unified Modelling Language (UML) methodologies will be used in the task for a normalised specification of needs. Additional technical definitions with sequence diagrams will be identified. Relevant workflows of the user types and the identification of best interaction and communication methods with them will be identified. Needs for monitoring and reporting services including the virtual tools and mobile communication needs via mobile apps, augmented reality presentations and novel visualisation functionalities will be identified.
  • Publication
    REACT validation methodology
    (REACT consortium, 2022-04-30) Perretti, D.; Keane, Marcus M.; Dana; Horizon 2020
    The main objective of this report is to create an M&V process based on the steps designed by the IPMVP protocol, and to aggregate all the necessary information for the validation process from other REACT deliverables in one document to provide a guidance in the calculation of the project results. KPIs and Use cases were described based on the most recent information provided by other deliverables. The output of this task is a validation methodology able to assess the application of the REACT solution from the perspective of energy/cost saving, carbon emission reduction and economic sustainability.
  • Publication
    Integrated demand response solution towards energy positive neighbourhoods: Demand response programs overview
    (RESPOND Consortium, 2017) Seri, Federico; Lissa, Paulo; Keane, Marcus M.; Horizon 2020
    Purpose: this reports presents an analysis of the contemporary demand response (DR) programs and solutions, already applied at European and Worldwide level. The document is divided into two main parts: the first one characterizes the DR programs from the point of view of the most relevant aspects found in literature: programs classification, ICT and business model. While, the second part provides an overview of the current DR programs at European and Worldwide levels. The overview reports and analyse efficient DR programs. The DR status in the pilot countries is described and recommendations are provided for design and implementation of the DR programs based on the previous findings. The analysis is intentionally focused on DR programs aspects related to residential building
  • Publication
    Highly innovative building control tools tackling the energy performance gap
    (HIT2GAP Consortium, 2018-10-31) Noris, Federico; Caboni, Omar; Pehse, Anne; Messervey, Thomas; Lopez, Maria; Ruffini, Sara; Horizon 2020
    The deliverable D6.1 is part of Work Package (WP) 6 with focus on ‘Innovative services definition and market exploitation’. More specifically, it belongs to Task (T) 6.1 named ‘New generation of services based on intelligent tools for building data treatment – Identification and management of the exploitable results (ERs)’ and is the third submission of a series of a total of four. The first submission at Month (M) 12 listed the ERs and gave a first overview about each of them with respect to type, manager, innovativeness, a preliminary exploitation vision and actions. In total, 34 Exploitable Results (ER) have been identified of which 15 are “Products”, 11 are “Services” and 6 qualify as “Knowledge & IP” (summary table in chapter 3). Each of these ERs was assigned its own ER manager who is responsible for defining and implementing actions to maximise exploitation in collaboration with R2M and other consortium partners are appropriate. The second draft of M18 added a SWOT analysis for each of them. That analysis is not included in this submission to provide a shorter document and non-redundant information. This third submission at M36 has two functions. First, it describes short- and medium-term exploitation visions of singles ERs in Chapter 4 to extend the exploitation planning further. Shortterm comprises a time horizon of two years, while the medium-term extends that to a total period of five years. Second, it documents decisions and aspects related to collective exploitation actions in Chapter 5. This includes definition of the minimum viable product, a view on how the platform will continue post project as free and open source software (FOSS), licensing options for proprietary and open source products, business model types and business strategies. The chapter also identified key exploitable results (KER) and maps planning considerations for module KER management during the third reporting period. Chapter 6 concludes the document. As a summary, and to make a linkage with the technical developments achieved so far in the project, Table 1 synthetises the ERs of product-type (only) with the associated TRL estimated for the end of the project. The ERs associated with modules and central functions are Key Exploitable Results and will be those that receive the most attention in the final year of the project with respect to exploitation, dissemination and replication activities. A summary table of all ERs is included in Chapter 2. The fourth and last draft of D6.1 will be submitted at M48. The final version will document the final status of the ERs and continue to value proposition mapping and design exercise work to arrive to a set of application scenarios which drive business cases and eventual business models.
  • Publication
    Demand side detailed models
    (INDIGO consortium, 2017-08-02) Sterling, Raymond; Bassani, Andrea; Costa, Andrea; De Cinque, Pietro; Passerini, Francesco; Febres, Jesús; Horizon 2020
    INDIGO is a Horizon 2020 EU-funded project carried out by 6 partners from across Europe and 1 from the United Arab Emirates that aims to develop a more efficient, intelligent and economical generation of District Cooling (DC) systems by improving the existing system planning, control and management tools. This will be achieved through two specific objectives. The first one is to widen the use of DC systems and motivate the competitiveness of European DC market by the development of two open-source tools: a planning tool for DC systems with the aim of supporting their optimal design; and a modelling library with thermofluid dynamic models of DC System components which will provide the designers detailed information about their physical behaviour. The second objective is to reduce primary energy consumption. This will be addressed by a ground breaking DC system management strategy focused mainly on energy efficiency maximization and on energy cost minimization.
  • Publication
    User, self-inspection, and quality checks requirements
    (BUILT2SPEC Consortium, 2016) Henon, Aurélien; Keane, Marcus M.; Adell, Germain; Horizon 2020
    This Deliverable D1.1 aims to analyse the context of construction projects across various countries of the EU (partners countries), to identify the stakeholders and their issues, and to imagine which answers will be developed and tested during Built2Spec project. The outputs will result in basic requirements and use cases to feed the developments of work packages 2 to 6, and ensure that the developments of the project are in agreement with the actual needs of the market. After a short general introduction (section 2), the results are presented in the sections 3 to 9 as follows. Section 3 describes the methodological approach adopted to identify the needs of the stakeholders. Section 4 presents the results of the analysis of: construction processes across Europe, stakeholders roles and issues, user needs and potential future solutions. These results represent the stakeholders/users¿ point of view. Sections 5 to 9 present the current state of technological developments, the potential ways of improvement, and first outlines of new use cases and requirements. The results are presented separately for each technical field (thermal inspection, airtightness, indoor air quality, acoustic comfort, information management, smart material, 3D scanning and drones, and quality assurance). These elements of information are proposed by solution providers from Built2Spec¿s consortium.
  • Publication
    Recovered timber in Europe: sources, classification, existing and potential reuse and recycling
    (National University of Ireland Galway, 2020-09-30) Harte, Annette M.; Uí Chúláin, Caitríona; Nasiri, Bahareh; Hughes, Mark; Llana, Daniel F.; Íñiguez-González, Guillermo; de Arana-Fernández, Marina; Shotton, Elizabeth; Walsh, St. John; Ridley-Ellis, Daniel; Cramer, Marlene; Risse, Michael; Ivanica, Raphaela; Cristescu, Carmen; Sandberg, Karin; Sandin, Ylva; Turk, Goran; Plos, Mitja; Šuligoj, Tamara; Hogan, Paul
    The Innovative Design for the Future Use and Reuse of Wooden building components (InFutUReWood) project aims to examine if recovered timber is suited for contemporary timber architecture. To address this aim, a study was undertaken as part of Work Package 3 to identify the current range of timber products obtained from demolition and their current and potential reuse. The study was conducted across all partner countries using a combination of site visits and industry surveys The information compiled shows that the motivation for deconstruction in each country depends mainly on the building location and site value. The type of timber available for recovery was largely contingent on the age of the structures. Building deterioration and rising building standards were common causes for demolition; however, a more significant incentive for urban demolition was market depreciation. In these instances, site clearance makes way for redevelopment, facilitating alternative building use or general urban renewal. An overview of international and national classification systems for timber waste from construction and demolition is presented. Differences were found between partner countries in terms of the potential to reuse recovered timber in loading bearing applications in buildings. Most timber extracted from construction and demolition across the surveyed counties is reduced to woodchip, regardless the size or quality of the extracted material. The main uses of the wood chip are particle board manufacture or bioenergy generation. Exceptions to this are mass timber, such as glulam, and old, large section timber members with high cultural value, which are reused directly. Potential alternative building products recovered timber are presented that will extend the lifespan of the material.
  • Publication
    Recycling timber in new mass timber construction products
    (National University of Ireland Galway, 2022-02) Uí Chúláin, Caitríona; Gil-Moreno, David; Llana, Daniel F.; González-Alegre, Violeta; Íniguez-González, Guillermo; Plos, Mitja; Turk, Goran; Risse, Michael; Stemmer, Michael; Ivanica, Raphaela; Richter, Klaus; Cramer, Marlene; Ridley-Ellis, Daniel; Cristescu, Carmen; Sandberg, Karin; Hogan, Paul; Harte, Annette M.
    The Innovative Design for the Future Use and Reuse of Wooden building components (InFutUReWood) project aims to examine if recovered timber is suited for contemporary timber architecture. To address this aim, series of structural testing programmes were carried out on products manufactured using recovered softwood and hardwood timber from a number of partner countries. These products include cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels, glued-laminated timber (GLT) beams and IsoTimber wall panels. In addition, series of tests were performed on similar products manufactured from new timber and on hybrid panels with mixed recovered and new timber to enable the evaluation of the relative performance characteristics of the different products. Tests were also carried out to evaluate the bonding characteristics and the embedment behaviour of recovered wood. Finally, a comparison between the environmental impacts of CLT manufactured from recovered and from primary wood was performed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology The report shows that the use of recovered timber in high-value material applications like CLT or GLT is to current knowledge an environmentally and technically feasible option and can contribute to the implementation of wood cascading as part of a bio-based economy.
  • Publication
    Traceability protocols for timber construction materials and products
    (National University of Ireland Galway, 2022-01) Uí Chúláin, Caitríona; McGetrick, Patrick J.; Harte, Annette M.
    The Innovative Design for the Future Use and Reuse of Wooden building components (InFutUReWood) project aims to examine if secondary wood (wood-salvage) is equally suited for contemporary architecture¿ This report outlines the aims to develop traceability protocols for construction materials and products to comply with the objectives of Task 3.4
  • Publication
    Design concepts for building products optimised for deconstruction
    (National University of Ireland Galway, 2022-02) Uí Chúláin, Caitríona; Sandin, Ylva; Walsh, St. John; Shotton, Elizabeth; Cramer, Marlene; Ridley-Ellis, Daniel; Carlsson, Anders; Jackson, Nicola; Östling, Janina; Harte, Annette M.
    The Innovative Design for the Future Use and Reuse of Wooden building components (InFutUReWood) project aims to answer two main questions: ¿ How easy is it to reuse timber from the current building stock, especially as a structural material? ¿ How can a review of current building practices help in future timber reuse? To address these questions the project identifies key opportunities and challenges, proposing technical solutions that aim to exploit the opportunities and reduce the challenges identified that may lessen the reuse potential of construction timber. This report is the result of the work carried out within Task 3.3 Design new products optimised for improved deconstruction potential. The aim of this task is to develop construction systems from new timber that are suitable for deconstruction at the end of first use. More precisely, it aims to improve the design and assembly approach used currently by timber product manufacturers and builders such that the reuse and cascade use viability of the timber content is increased. To achieve this, objectives are set out in the following steps: i. Initially, to identify the current manufacturing and building practices that complicate timber-salvage at building disassembly, ii. To examine alternative timber construction systems that would optimize the reuse of timber-salvage in the future The report gathers and presents design examples of low-rise residential timber construction in Sweden, the UK and Ireland. Two different timber construction approaches for residential buildings are reported here, namely, light timber-frame construction and mass-timber construction. Both building systems are manufactured offsite in panel format and are assembled and finished onsite.
  • Publication
    Optimal design and operation of small-scale wastewater treatment plants: The Irish case: EPA Research Report 255
    (Environmental Protection Agency, 2018-08) Fitzsimons, Lorna; McNamara, Greg; Doherty, Edelle; Clifford, Eoghan
    There are many variables which must be considered when designing and operating a wastewater treatment system. The key objectives of this research were to develop software tools to assist in the selection and management of wastewater treatment systems, with a specific focus on small wastewater treatment plants in Ireland.
  • Publication
    The effect of wastewater treatment processes, in particular ultraviolet light treatment, on pathogenic virus removal: EPA Research Report 171
    (Environmental Protection Agency, 2016-05) Fitzhenry, Kelly; Barrett, Maria; O’Flaherty, Vincent; Dore, William; Cormican, Martin; Rowan, Neil; Clifford, Eoghan
    Format: pdf Download now Municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges are a recognised source of human pathogenic viruses. Of concern within this group is norovirus the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. This project investigated the use of FRNA bacteriophage as (i) a potential surrogate for norovirus response/behaviour and (ii) a model to determine the fate of viruses through a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The project also evaluated the efficacy of membrane filtration (microfiltration and ultrafiltration) as pathogen removal method and two ultraviolet-based technologies; pulsed UV and low pressure UV as pathogen disinfection methods. The potential impacts of parameters suchas organic carbon, metals and suspended solids, (typically present in wastewater) on the investigated pathogen removal processes were also analysed.
  • Publication
    Increasing resource efficiency in wastewater treatment plants: EPA Research Report 168
    (Environmental Protection Agency, 2016-03) Fitzsimons, Lorna; Clifford, Eoghan; McNamara, Greg; Doherty, Edelle; Phelan, Thomas; Horrigan, Matthew; Delauré, Yann; Corcoran, Brian
    The focus of this project was the resource efficiency of Irish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The perspective of the report is both operational (economic) and environmental. Wastewater treatment is a resource-intensive process, with three main resources being identified as those of greatest concern: energy, chemicals and water.
  • Publication
    Ground improvement using the vibro- stone column technique
    (Institution of Engineers in Ireland, 2007) McCabe, Bryan A.; McNeill, James A.; Black, Jonathan A.; |~|
    The Vibro Stone Column technique is one of the most widely-used ground improvement processes in the world, although its potential for improving Irish sites has yet to be fully exploited. Historically the system has been used to densify loose granular soils, but over the past 35 years, the system has been used increasingly to reinforce soft cohesive soils and mixed fills. This paper will describe the technique, applicable soil types, settlement and bearing capacity calculations, recent research areas and an Irish case study.
  • Publication
    National Centre for Water and Wastewater Research and Demonstration
    (EPA: STRIVE Report 78, 2010) Clifford, Eoghan; O'Reilly, Edmond; Rodgers, Michael; O'Donoghue, Padraic; |~|Environmental Protection Agency|~|
    Decentralised wastewater treatment systems for small towns (200 2,000 PE) often have different design requirements to those of systems for larger conurbations even though the treatment process technologies may be similar. For example, additional design requirements at decentralised small systems may include: (i) flow balancing; (ii) long-term on-site sludge storage; and (iii) infrequent supervision and remote monitoring. To meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, wastewater treatment systems for small towns should: (i) be simple, sustainable and robust, and cheap to construct and operate; (ii) reduce fats, oils and greases; (iii) remove organic carbon, nutrients (N and P) and solids; (iv) decrease microorganisms; (v) treat resultant sludges on-site or locally; and (vi) be monitored and controlled remotely. The NUI Galway/EPA WRF was created to assess and develop such wastewater treatment systems for small-towns.
  • Publication
    Brace response and assessment: computation, experiments and design (BRACED)
    (Seismic engineering research infrastructures for European synergies (SERIES) , Project No.: 227887, 2013) Goggins, Jamie; Brian Broderick; |~|EU|~|
    The BRACED project investigated the ultimate behaviour of concentrically braced frames(CBFs). The research programme was designed to validate empirical models for theductility capacity of hollow section bracing members and recent proposals for theimproved detailing of gusset plate connections, to identify active yield mechanisms andfailure modes in different brace member/connection configurations, and to provideessential data on the earthquake response of European CBFs. The central element of anintegrated experimental and numerical research programme is a series of shake tableexperiments on full-scale model single-storey CBFs designed to Eurocode 8. Twelveseparate experiments were performed on the Azalee seismic testing facility at CEA Saclayin the March-May 2013. The properties of the brace members and gusset plate connectionswere varied between experiments to examine a range of feasible properties and toinvestigate the influence of conventional and improved design details on frame response.Each experiment examined the response of the test frame and brace-gusset platespecimens to table excitations scaled to produce elastic response, brace buckling/yieldingand brace fracture. These experiments were supported by complementary quasi-staticcyclic tests on a simplified version of the shaking table test frame that retained all of theimportant characteristics of that structure, including overall dimensions, beam-to-columnconnections, brace properties and gusset-plate connection design. Correlative pre-testpredictions and post-test simulations using pushover and time-history analysis were alsoperformed using the OpenSees seismic analysis software. The outputs of the researchprogramme represent a unique set of data on the ultimate earthquake response of CBFswith realistic brace members and connections. The principal experimental outcomesinclude measurements of elastic frame stiffness and its evolution with brace damage,measurements of the displacement ductility capacity of the brace specimens; anevaluation of the influence of brace connection configuration and gusset plate detailing onframe stiffness, damping and ductility; and observations on the contributions of brace andconnection yielding to overall inelastic deformation of CBFs. The numerical modelling hasvalidated a methodology of modelling this class of structure in OpenSees, while theproject as a whole supports an assessment of Eurocode 8 design guidance for CBFs.