School of Psychology (Book Chapters)

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  • Publication
    Gastrointestinal disorders
    (Springer, Cham, 2015-09-04) Leader, Geraldine; Mannion, Arlene
    Gastric problems are common among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). And, this phenomenon has been well known for some time. The purpose of this chapter is to define the characteristics of this problem, its prevalence, and how the disorder interfaces with and affects ASD.
  • Publication
    Challenging behaviors
    (Springer, Cham, 2016-02-04) Leader, Geraldine; Mannion, Arlene
    One of the most common co-occurring problems with autism is challenging behaviors. Many methods have been developed to address this topic such as scales for identifying CB. Other measures have been designed to assess maintaining variables (functional assessment). This chapter reviews these methods and discusses them in the context of autism.
  • Publication
    Populations and problems evaluated with functional assessment
    (Springer, 2021-03-27) Leader, Geraldine; Casburn, Mia; Maher, Leanne; Ferrari, Chiara; Naughton, Katie; Wicks, Taylor R.; Mannion, Arlene
    Functional assessment is a technique consisting of a set of procedures that define the relationship between events in the environment and specific target behaviors. The purpose of functional assessment is to identify maintaining contingencies for challenging behavior in an individual s environment. This chapter provides an overview of populations evaluated with functional assessment, which includes the following: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, Emotional Behavioral Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Fragile X Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome, Smith-Magenis Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Acquired Brain Injury, Typically Developing Children, Children at Risk of Developmental Disabilities, Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure, and Children who use Wheelchairs. The subsequent part of this chapter will focus on the behaviors and problems evaluated with functional assessment, which include the following: aggression, self-injurious behavior, stereotypy, bizarre speech, skin picking, hand mouthing, feeding problems, elopement, noncompliance and disruptive behavior, multiple typographies of problem behavior, sleep problems, and happiness behaviors. An extensive review of the research will provide the reader with the range of possible uses of functional assessment.
  • Publication
    An interdisciplinary approach to secondary qualitative data analysis: what why and how
    (Edward Elgar, 2021-02-16) Rodriguez, Leonor
    Living in global data-rich societies implies the development of critical appraisal to evaluate the quality, authenticity and meaning of data that is increasingly more accessible. Data is readily available, which is an advantage; however, not all data is good data, ethically sourced and governed under the same laws and principles in every part of the world. At this time, vast amounts of data are being collected and archived worldwide, therefore the use of existing data for further analysis is increasingly more prevalent (Johnston, 2014). Data availability has increased due to the efforts of organisations to create and maintain datasets in open and accessible ways and the advances in statistical software which have facilitated greater ease of manipulation (Trinh, 2018). Secondary data analysis has the capacity to effectively use and make sense of readily available data; however, this also comes with advantages and challenges that will be explored in depth in this chapter. A case is made on the multiple benefits of engaging in secondary data analysis whilst highlighting the potential difficulties that should be given careful consideration. Secondary data analysis is an under-used methodological technique and the awareness of its benefits and how to overcome its limitations may encourage its use further (Irwin, 2013; Smith, 2008). This chapter provides general guidelines that can be useful in different fields, particularly targeted at practitioners, policy makers and researchers from different backgrounds. The chapter, however, targets all levels of expertise from the very novice to experienced users of qualitative data. As proposed and described in this chapter, secondary qualitative data analysis is defined as an innovative and creative yet rigorous and systematic research design that can respond to the fast-changing data availability across different sectors. Additionally, funders across different countries now encourage and expect researchers to consider data sharing as part of their funding proposals (Irwin, 2013). It is, therefore, a very pertinent time to explore, understand and engage in secondary data analysis.
  • Publication
    Gelotophobia and autism
    (Springer, 2019-10-08) Leader, Geraldine; Mannion, Arlene
    [No abstract available]
  • Publication
    Dynamic Protention: the architecture of real-time cognition for future events
    (Springer, Cham, 2019) Elliott, Mark; Coleman, Liam
    For over thirty years now a body of physiological evidence has been acquired which indicates that cognitive operations coordinate via the phase synchronization of neuronal firing. While usually ascribed to ‘binding’, i.e. the putting together of basic perceptual, features to form more complex perceptual units, this ascription is not without critics, who identify phase synchronization as a function of sensori-motor coordination. From the perspective of an experimental paradigm used to measure the effects of stimulus synchronization, we discuss what is ‘bound’, and attempt a reconciliation between perceptual and sensori-motor accounts of oscillatory synchronization. Our evidence identifies a role for synchronization in protentive coding, this is to say, coding in anticipation of a future event, and hence describes the architecture of real-time cognition for future events.
  • Publication
    Time opined: A being in the moment
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019) Elliott, Mark
    [No abstract available]
  • Publication
    (Springer, Cham, 2019-09-04) Mannion, Arlene; White, Keeley; Porter, Emily; Louw, Julia; Kirkpatrick, Bernadette; Gilroy, Shawn P.; Leader, Geraldine
    Psychosis is a set of symptoms related to mental health issues that occurs in a range of psychotic disorders. Psychosis in individuals with intellectual disabilities is an underexplored area in research. This chapter provides an overview of psychosis in intellectual disability (ID). Definitions of what psychosis is will be discussed, as well the prevalence and incidence of psychosis. The importance of studying psychosis in ID will be outlined, including a discussion of the difficulties of providing a diagnosis of psychosis in individuals with an ID. Difficulties of diagnosis will be discussed in terms of diagnostic systems and assessment tools, presence of dual diagnosis, similarities in the etiology of challenging behavior and psychiatric disorder, severity of challenging behavior, the level and degree of intellectual disability, and difficulties in self-report. Risk factors of psychosis will be examined, including baseline risks, early-life risks, childhood risks, and risks later in life. Assessment of psychosis will be outlined, including recommendations for the assessment of psychosis in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Pharmacological and psychological treatment of psychosis in ID will be discussed including recommendations for treatment. Finally, future directions for research will be outlined.
  • Publication
    Education, intellectual development, and relational frame theory
    (New Harbinger Publications, 2013-05-01) Stewart, Ian; Roche, Bryan; O'Hora, Denis; Tarbox, Jonathan
    [No abstract available]
  • Publication
    Putting relational frame theory to work: current and future RFT research in organizational behavior management
    (New Harbinger, 2013-05-01) O' Hora, Denis; Tammemagi, Triona; Maglieri, Kristen; |~|
    The workplace is a complex and ever-changing environment. The defining characteristic of all organizations is that individuals work together to achieve a common goal. Organizations depend on interconnected behavior by various people, because work is not produced in isolation (e.g., people work together to produce a product or service and deliver that to its customers). This interdependence is at the heart of the complexity of the influences on human behavior in organizations. Each organization has a unique culture, a set of values and practices that distinguish it from other organizations. These values and practices (e.g., recruitment, incentive schemes, performance appraisal systems, labor relations) contribute to the personal environment of each employee at each level of the organization. The contingencies within this personal environment determine whether an employee is creative, engaged, and productive, or frustrated, cynical and uninterested.