Data Science Institute (Book Chapters)

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

  • Publication
    Is downloading this App consistent with my values? Conceptualizing a value-centered privacy assistant
    (Springer, Cham, 2021-08-25) Carter, Sarah E.; Science Foundation Ireland
    Digital privacy notices aim to provide users with information to make informed decisions. They are, however, fraught with difficulties. Instead, I propose that data privacy decisions can be understood as an expression of user values. To optimize this value expression, I further propose the creation of a value-centered privacy assistant (VcPA). Here, I preliminary explore how a VcPA could enhance user value expression by utilizing three user scenarios in the context of considering whether or not to download an environmental application, the OpenLitterMap app. These scenarios are conceptually constructed from established privacy user groups - the privacy fundamentalists; the privacy pragmatists; and the privacy unconcerned. I conclude that the VcPA best facilitates user value expression of the privacy fundamentalists. In contrast, the value expression of the privacy pragmatists and the privacy unconcerned could be enhanced or hindered depending on the context and their internal states. Possible implications for optimal VcPA design are also discussed. Following this initial conceptual exploration of VcPAs, further empirical research will be required to demonstrate the effectiveness of the VcPA system in real-world settings.
  • Publication
    End-to-end tracing and congestion in a blockchain: A supply chain use case in hyperledger fabric
    (IGI Global, 2021) Yapa Bandara, Kosala; Thakur, Subhasis; Breslin, John G.; SAP Ireland; Insight Centre for Data Analytics, NUI Galway
    Modern supply chain applications are complex systems that play an important role in many different sectors. Supply chain management systems are implemented to handle increasing complexity and flows of goods. However, most of these systems are also increasing the complexity of providing trust and a global view of transactions in a distributed supply chain system. Blockchain technology introduces a new architectural style to support the traceability and trust of transactions performed by participants in a network. This chapter uses this emerging technology to realize a supply chain use case from JLP Meats in the UK with improved transparency, trust, and end-to-end querying while discussing potential challenges of realizing large-scale enterprise blockchain applications. The process of farm-to-fork is implemented and tested for traceability, item recall, block analysis, congestion enabling food safety, and sustainable agriculture. Potential challenges are highlighted in complex supply chains that need heterogeneous trade compliance and scalability.
  • Publication
    The data ethics challenges of explainable AI and their knowledge-based solutions
    (IOS Press, 2020-05) d'Aquin, Mathieu; Science Foundation Ireland
    Abstract. Explainable AI has recently gained momentum as an approach to overcome some of the more obvious ethical implications of the increasingly widespread application of AI (mostly machine learning). It is however not always completely evident whether providing explanations actually achieves to overcome those ethical issues, or rather create a false sense of control and transparency. This and other possible misuses of Explainable AI leads to the need to consider the possibility that providing explanations might itself represent a risk with respect to ethical implications at several levels. In this chapter, we explore through a series of scenarios how explanations in certain circunstances might affect negatively specific ethical values, from human agency to fairness. Through those scenarios, we discuss the need to consider ethical implications in the design and deployment of Explainable AI systems, focusing on how knowledge-based approaches can offer elements of solutions to the issues raised. We conclude on the requirements for ethical explanations, and on how hybrid-systems, combining machine learning with background knowledge, offer a way towards achieving those requirements.
  • Publication
    Automatic morphological analysis and interlinking of historical Irish cognate verb forms
    (De Gruyter Mouton, 2020) Fransen, Theodorus; Irish Research Council
    The main aim of the author’s research project is to use computational approaches to gain more insight into the historical development of Irish verbs. One of the objectives is to investigate how a link between the electronic Dictionary of the Irish language (eDIL),1 covering the period c. 700–c. 1700, but focussing on Early Irish (7th–12th centuries), and the nascent Foclóir Stairiúil na Gaeilge ‘The Historical Dictionary of Irish’, 2 covering the period 1600–2000, could be implemented. Such a link will be hugely beneficial for scholars operating at the intersection of the medieval and modern period (see Table 1), who currently lack a comprehensive lexical resource for the “intermediate” early modern period.